SOLVER choices for ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATION in CST Studio Suite

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Sindhu V T, Application Engineer- Electromagnetics Jun 16th, 2023

CST Studio Suite comprises a 3D interactive modeling tool, a schematic layout tool, a pre-processor for the electromagnetic solvers and post-processing tools tailored to industry needs.

The seamless integration of the solvers into single user interface in CST Studio Suite helps engineers to select the most suitable simulation method for a given problem, delivering improved simulation performance and unique simulation reliability through cross-verification.

Application area in CST Studio Suite:

HIGH FREQUENCY SOLVERS

Time Domain

3D full-wave solver, with Finite Integration Technique and Transmission Line Matrix in single package. The Time Domain Solver can perform broadband simulations in a single run.

Frequency Domain

3D full-wave solver based on Finite Element Method (FEM). Solver includes a model-order reduction (MOR) feature which can speed up the simulation of resonant structures.

Integral Equation

3D full-wave solver based on the method of moments (MOM) technique with multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM). Solver includes a characteristic mode analysis (CMA) feature which calculates the modes supported by a structure.

Asymptotic

It is based on Shooting Bouncing Ray (SBR) method and is capable of tackling simulations with an electric size of many thousands of wavelengths (extremely large structures).

Eigenmode

3D solver, with Advanced Krylov Subspace method (AKS) and the Jacobi-Davidson method (JDM) for simulating resonant structures.

Multilayer

3D full-wave solver, based on the method of moments (MOM) technique. Solver uses a Surface Integral Technique and is optimized for simulating planar microwave structures.

Hybrid Solver Task

This Solver Task allows the Time Domain, Frequency Domain, Integral Equation and Asymptotic Solvers to be linked for hybrid simulation.

LOW FREQUENCY

E-Static

3D solver for simulating static electric fields.

M-Static

3D solver for simulating static magnetic fields.

Stationary Current

3D solver for simulating the flow of DC currents through a device, especially with lossy components.

LF Time Domain (2D-xy)

3D solver for simulating the transient behavior in low frequency systems and includes both magneto-quasistatic (MQS) and electro-quasistatic (EQS) implementations.

LF Frequency Domain

3D solver for simulating the time-harmonic behavior in low frequency systems and includes magneto-quasistatic (MQS), electro-quasistatic (EQS) and full wave implementations.

PARTICLES

Particle in Cell

Simulation method for particle tracking that calculates both particle trajectory and electromagnetic fields in the time-domain, taking into account the space charge effects and mutual coupling between the two.

Particle Tracking

3D solver for simulating particle trajectories through electromagnetic fields.

Wakefield

Wakefield problems are driven by a bunch of charged particles. The Wakefield solver calculates the wake-potentials for a given structure from electromagnetic fields.

E-Static PIC Solver

The Electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (Es-PIC) Solver can be used for problems where the particle dynamics are governed by the particle charge and not by the particle. It computes the space charge dynamics in a transient approach where the time domain behavior is not captured by a Tracking analysis.

PCB ANALYSIS

PCB – TL

A 2D transmission line modeling technique (2DTL) is offered to analyze classical signal integrity issues on high-speed multilayer boards including time delay, reflection and crosstalk effects on multiple transmission lines.

PCB – PEEC

The PEEC modeling method is based on a quasi-static 3D approach. The magnetic coupling between the conductive segments is done by inductive coupling devices and the electric coupling between the conductive areas is done by capacitors, which takes into account the impact of the dielectric areas.

PCB – FE FD

3DFEFD solver is based on the Frequency-Domain Finite-Element method, combined with a domain-decomposition approach. The solver has been especially designed for the modeling and simulation of typical power distribution nets existing on high-speed PCBs.

PCB – SI FD

Purpose of a SI-FD task is to analyze the frequency dependent S-Parameters of selected signal nets on one or more signal pins of I/O devices.

PCB – SI TD

Purpose of an SI-TD task is to analyze the transmission behavior on certain signal nets by given voltage excitations and (non-linear) loadings on one or more signal pins of I/O devices.

PCB – IR Drop

Purpose of IR-Drop task is to analyze the amount of voltage drop on a power/ground system by a given DC current consumption on one or more power pins of I/O devices.

PCB – Power Integrity

Purpose of PI Analysis task is to compute the impedance of the power-distribution network (PDN). The self-impedance curves are the essential characteristics of a PDN, as they describe the relation between high-frequency voltage drop and current drawn on the component site.

EDA/EMC

PartialRLC

Partial RLC Solver can be used for calculation of equivalent circuit parameters, i.e., partial inductances, partial resistances, and partial capacitances, for a specified model.

Rule Check

Rule Check is an EMC, SI and PI design rule checking (DRC) tool that checks the PCB design against a suite of EMC or SI rules. The kernel used by Rule Check is the well-known software tool EMSAT.

Cables

The Cable Harness Solver incorporates a fast and accurate transmission line modeling technique, dedicated to the three-dimensional analysis of signal integrity (SI), conducted emission (CE), radiated emission (RE), and electromagnetic susceptibility (EMS) of complex cable structures in electrically large systems.

MULTIPHYSICS

Thermal Steady State Solver

The Thermal Steady State Solver can predict temperature distribution of a steady-state system. Thermal Steady State Solver seamlessly linked to electromagnetic solvers enables temperature prediction of devices and resulting impact on their electromagnetic performance.

Thermal Transient Solver

The Thermal Transient Solver can predict time-varying temperature response of a system. Thermal Steady State Solver seamlessly linked to electromagnetic solvers enables transient temperature prediction of devices and resulting impact on their electromagnetic performance.

Conjugate Heat Transfer Solver

The conjugate heat transfer (CHT) solver (powered by IPS IBOFlow®) employs computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to simulate thermal conduction, convection and radiation simultaneously in the transient or steady-state regime.

Mechanical Solver

Structural mechanics solver is intended to compute the static distributions of displacements, strains and stresses in a solid object, caused by various internal and external forces.

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AUTHOR: Sindhu V T, Application Engineer- Electromagnetics

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